Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Punjab state of India, located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. It is bounded by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest and by the country of Pakistan to the west. Punjab in its present form came into existence on November 1, 1966, when most of its predominantly Hindi-speaking areas were separated to form the new state of Haryana. The city of Chandigarh, within the Chandigarh union territory, is the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.
The word Punjab is a compound of two Persian words, panj (“five”) and āb (“water”), thus signifying the land of five waters, or rivers (the Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, and Sutlej). The word’s origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for “five rivers” and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata. As applied to the present Indian state of Punjab, however, it is a misnomer: since the partition of India in 1947, only two of those rivers, the Sutlej and the Beas, lie within Punjab’s territory, while the Ravi flows only along part of its western border. Area 19,445 square miles (50,362 square km). Pop. (2011) 27,704,236.
Relief, drainage, and soils
Punjab spans three physio-graphic regions, the smallest being the Siwalik Range in the northeast, where elevations reach about 3,000 feet (900 meters). Farther south, the narrow, undulating foothill region is dissected by closely spaced seasonal torrents, locally known as chos, several of which terminate in the plain below without joining any stream. To the south and west of the foothills lies the broad flat tract, with low-lying floodplains separated by slightly elevated uplands. This region, with its fertile alluvial soils, slopes gently from an elevation of about 900 feet (275 meters) in the northeast to about 550 feet (170 meters) in the southwest. The southwestern part of the plains, formerly strewn with sand dunes, has mostly been leveled off with the expansion of irrigation projects.
Punjab has an inland subtropical location, and its climate is continental, being semiarid to subhumid. Summers are very hot. In June, the warmest month, daily temperatures in Ludhiana usually reach about 100 °F (upper 30s C) from a low in the upper 70s F (mid-20s C). In January, the coolest month, daily temperatures normally rise from the mid-40s (about 7 °C) into the mid-60s F (upper 10s C). Annual rainfall is highest in the Siwalik Range, which may receive more than 45 inches (1,150 mm), and lowest in the southwest, which may receive less than 12 inches (300 mm); statewide average annual precipitation is roughly 16 inches (400 mm). Most of the annual rainfall occurs from July to September, the months of the southwest monsoon. Winter rains from the western cyclones, occurring from December to March, account for less than one-fourth of the total rainfall.
Plant and animal life
With the growth of human settlement over the centuries, Punjab has been cleared of most of its forest cover. Over large parts of the Siwalik Range, bush vegetation has succeeded trees as a result of extensive deforestation. There have been attempts at reforestation on the hillsides, and eucalyptus trees have been planted along major roads.
Natural habitats for wildlife are severely limited because of intense competition from agriculture. Even so, many types of rodents (such as mice, rats, squirrels, and gerbils), bats, birds, and snakes, as well as some species of monkeys, have adapted to the farming environment. Larger mammals, including jackals, leopards, wild boar, various types of deer, civets, and pangolins (scaly anteaters), among others, are found in the Siwaliks.
The people of Punjab are mainly descendants of the so-called Aryan tribes that entered India from the northwest during the 2nd millennium BC, as well as the pre-Aryan population, probably Dravidians (speakers of Dravidian languages), who had a highly developed civilization. Relics of this civilization have been unearthed at Rupnagar (Ropar). Successive waves of invaders—Greeks, Parthians, Kushans, and Hephthalites (Hunas)—added to the diversity of earlier social, or caste, groups (jatis). Later, invaders under the banner of Islam forced several vanquished groups (such as the Jat peasant caste and the Rajput class of landowners) to convert to the Muslim faith, although many conversions were voluntary under the influence of Sufi saints.
Today, however, the majority religion of Punjab is Sikhism, which originated from the teachings of Nanak, the first Sikh Guru. Hindus make up the largest minority, but there also is a significant population of Muslims. There are small communities of Christians and Jains in some areas. Some two-fifths of Punjab’s population consists of Hindus and Sikhs who officially belong to the Scheduled Castes (formerly called “untouchables”), which occupy a relatively low position within the traditional Indian caste system.
Punjabi is the official state language. Along with Hindi, it is the most widely spoken. However, many people also speak English and Urdu.
About one-third of Punjab’s population lives in cities and towns. Its major cities are Ludhiana in the central region, Amritsar in the northwest, Jalandhar in north-central Punjab, Patiala in the southeast, and Bathinda in the south-central part of the state. Muslims reside mostly in and around the southwest-central city of Maler Kotla, which was once the centre of a princely state ruled by a Muslim nawab (provincial governor).
Some two-fifths of Punjab’s population is engaged in the agricultural sector, which accounts for a significant segment of the state’s gross product. Punjab produces an important portion of India’s food grain and contributes a major share of the wheat and rice stock held by the Central Pool (a national repository system of surplus food grain). Much of the state’s agricultural progress and productivity is attributable to the so-called Green Revolution, an international movement launched in the 1960s that introduced not only new agricultural technologies but also high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.
Aside from wheat and rice, corn (maize), barley, and pearl millet are important cereal products of Punjab. Although the yield of pulses (legumes) has declined since the late 20th century, there has been a rapid increase in the commercial production of fruit, especially citrus, mangoes, and guavas. Other major crops include cotton, sugarcane, oil seeds, chickpeas, peanuts (groundnuts), and vegetables.
With almost the entire cultivated area receiving irrigation, Punjab is among India’s most widely irrigated states. Government-owned canals and wells are the main sources of irrigation; canals are most common in southern and southwestern Punjab, while wells are more typical of the north and the northeast. The Bhakra Dam project in neighboring Himachal Pradesh provides much of Punjab’s supply of irrigation water.
Resources and power
Lacking fossil fuels, Punjab draws its energy primarily from thermal plants fired with imported coal. However, a significant amount of power is provided by hydroelectric plants and, to a lesser extent, by solar power stations. In the early 21st century the demand for electricity in Punjab continued to exceed the supply.
The manufacturing sector (including construction) has expanded notably since the late 20th century. Industries with the largest number of workers include those producing silk, wool, and other textiles; processed foods and beverages; metal products and machinery; transport equipment; and furniture. Other important manufactures include leather goods, chemicals, rubber and plastics, and hosiery.
Punjab’s services sector includes trade, transportation and storage, financial services, real estate, public administration, and other services. The sector has grown rapidly since the late 20th century. By the early 21st century it had become the largest component of Punjab’s economy.
Punjab has one of the best-developed road networks in the country. All-weather paved roads extend to most villages, and the state is crossed by a number of national highways. Punjab also is well served by the Northern Railway—part of the national railway system. There is an international airport in Amritsar, and regular domestic service is available in Chandigarh and Ludhiana. Several other airports offer cargo service.
Government and society
The structure of Punjab’s government, like that of most other states of India, is determined by the national constitution of 1950. The state is led by a governor, who is appointed by the president of India. The governor is aided and advised by a Council of Ministers, which is led by a chief minister and responsible to the unicameral Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha).
At the head of the judiciary is the High Court, which is located in Chandigarh and is shared with the state of Haryana. Appeals from the High Court are directed to the Supreme Court of India. Below the High Court are district-level courts.
The state is divided into more than a dozen districts, which are grouped into several revenue divisions. Each district is headed by a deputy commissioner. The districts are parceled further into a number of tehsils, or subdivisions. Lower administrative and revenue units include circles, blocks, and villages, as well as police districts and police stations.
Health and welfare
Punjab enjoys better health conditions than most states in India. Hospitals attached to medical colleges, district- and tehsil-level medical facilities, health care centres in rural areas, and numerous dispensaries constitute a widespread health care network.
Numerous social services are provided by government and voluntary organizations. The government provides pensions for the elderly and operates a network of employment exchanges to assist the unemployed. The state also has schemes to aid those from traditionally disadvantaged social groups through scholarships, employment services, and assorted loans and grants for business activities.
In addition to the government, private organizations have played a significant role in the extension of education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels throughout the state. Education is compulsory and free for pupils aged 6 to 11. Secondary education is also free in state schools. Broadcasting has been especially important in the dissemination of vocational and cultural education throughout the state.
Punjab has several state universities, including Punjabi University (1962) in Patiala, Guru Nanak Dev University (1969) in Amritsar, Punjab University (1956) in Chandigarh, Punjab Agricultural University (1962) in Ludhiana, Punjab Technical University (1997) in Jalandhar, and Baba Farid University of Health Sciences (1998) in Faridkot. In addition, there are more than 200 specialized colleges and technical institutions.
Ballads of love and war, fairs and festivals, dancing, music, and Punjabi literature are among the characteristic expressions of the state’s cultural life. The origins of Punjabi literature trace to the mystical and religious verse of the 13th-century Sufi (mystic) Shaikh Farīd and to the 15th–16th-century founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak; those figures were the first to use Punjabi extensively as a medium of poetic expression. The works of Sufi poet Waris Shah greatly enriched Punjabi literature in the second half of the 18th century.
Contemporary in the 20th and early 21st centuries Punjabi literature found some of its greatest exponents in poet and author Bhai Vir Singh and the poets Puran Singh, Dhani Ram Chatrik, Mohan Singh “Mahir,” and Shiv Kumar Batalvi; renowned novelists included Jaswant Singh Kanwal, Gurdial Singh, Giani Gurdit Singh, and Sohan Singh Shital, among others. Kulwant Singh Virk is one of the best-known writers of short stories in Punjabi.
Punjab holds numerous religious and seasonal festivals, such as Dussehra, a Hindu festival celebrating the victory of Prince Rama over the demon king Ravana, as recounted in the epic Ramayana; Diwali, a festival of lights celebrated by both Hindus and Sikhs; and Baisakhi, which for Hindus is a new year’s festival and for Sikhs is both an agricultural festival and a celebration of the birth of the community’s Khalsa order. There also are numerous anniversary celebrations in honor of the Gurus (the 10 historical leaders of Sikhism) and various saints.
Dancing is a typical feature of such festivities, with bhangra, jhumar, and sammi among the most popular genres. Giddha, a native Punjabi tradition, is a humorous song-and-dance genre performed by women. In addition to Sikh religious music, semi classical Mughal forms, such as the khyal dance and the ṭhumrī, ghazal, and qawwālī vocal performance genres, continue to be popular.
The state’s outstanding architectural monument is the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) at Amritsar, which blends Indian and Muslim styles. Its chief motifs, such as the dome and the geometric design, are repeated in most of the Sikh places of worship. The Harmandir Sahib is rich in gold filigree work, panels with floral designs, and marble facings inlaid with colored stones. Other important buildings include the Martyr’s Memorial at Jallianwalla Bagh (a park in Amritsar), the Hindu Temple of Durgiana (also in Amritsar), the so-called Moorish Mosque in Kapurthala (patterned after a Moroccan model), and the old forts of Bathinda and Bahadurgarh.
The foundations of the present Punjab were laid by Banda Singh Bahadur, a hermit who became a military leader and, with his fighting band of Sikhs, temporarily liberated the eastern part of the province from Mughal rule in 1709–10. Banda Singh’s defeat and execution in 1716 were followed by a prolonged struggle between the Sikhs on one side and the Mughals and Afghans on the other. By 1764–65 the Sikhs had established their dominance in the area. Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) subsequently built up the Punjab region into a powerful Sikh kingdom and attached to it the adjacent provinces of Multan, Kashmir, and Peshawar (all of which are now fully or partially administered by Pakistan).
n 1849 the Punjab kingdom fell to the troops of the British East India Company and subsequently became a province under British rule. By the late 19th century, however, the Indian nationalist movement took hold in the province. One of the most significant events associated with the movement was the 1919 Massacre of Amritsar, which resulted from an order given by the British general Reginald Edward Harry Dyer to fire on a group of some 10,000 Indians who had convened to protest new anti subversion regulations enacted by the British administration; according to one report, nearly 400 died and about 1,200 were injured in the conflict.
When India gained its independence in 1947, the British province of Punjab was split between the new sovereign states of India and Pakistan, and the smaller, eastern portion became part of India.
After independence, the history of the Indian Punjab was dominated by Sikh agitation for a separate Punjabi-speaking state, led by Tara Singh and later by his political successor, Sant Fateh Singh. In November 1956, however, rather than being divided along linguistic lines, the Indian state of Punjab was enlarged through incorporation of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), an amalgamation of the pre-independence princely territories of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Kalsia, Malerkotla (Maler Kotla), and Nalagarh.
Political and administrative leadership for the enlarged Punjab was provided by Sardar Partap Singh Kairon, chief minister of the state from 1956 to 1964. The call for a separate Indian state containing the predominantly Punjabi-speaking areas intensified in the wake of Punjab’s expansion. Eventually, the government of India met the demand. On November 1, 1966, Punjab was divided on the basis of language into the mostly Hindi-speaking state of Haryana and the new, primarily Punjabi-speaking state of Punjab; meanwhile, the northernmost districts were transferred to Himachal Pradesh, and the newly constructed city of Chandigarh and its immediate surroundings became a separate union territory. Though not a part of either state, the city of Chandigarh was retained as the joint administrative headquarters, or capital, of both Haryana and Punjab.
Although Sikhs had won the use of Punjabi within the state, by the 1980s militant factions of the Shiromani Akali Dal (Supreme Akali Party) and the All India Sikh Students’ Federation were demanding the establishment of an autonomous Sikh homeland, or Khalistan (“Land of the Pure,” a term introduced as early as 1946 by Tara Singh). In order to attain their goal, those groups began to use terrorism, including the indiscriminate killing of Punjabi Hindus and even those Sikhs who opposed the creation of Khalistan. In June 1984, in an effort to dislodge Sikh militants fortified in the Harmandir Sahib, or Golden Temple (the Sikhs’ holiest shrine), the Indian army carried out an attack.
The Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and most of his armed followers were killed, as were at least 100 Indian soldiers. In retaliation, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated at her Delhi home by two of her Sikh bodyguards, which in turn led to violence against Sikhs in Delhi and elsewhere. A climate of violence and disorder persisted in Punjab through the 1980s, but by the early 1990s the state had returned to relative stability. The general peace there continued into the early 21st century, helped by the naming of Manmohan Singh, a Sikh, as the prime minister of India in 2004.